The second TICCS® pillar categorises infrastructure companies by groups of industrial activities. Industrial-sector group classifications (or superclasses) represent broad areas of industrial activity as well as transaction or project-development expertise. Industrial sector and sub-sector classifications (or classes and subclasses) represent specific industrial activities and types of physical assets and technologies.

Academic Insights

Standard industrial classification can be ill-suited to represent the different types of infrastructure companies. They focus on broad industrial activities only, and fail to take into account other aspects of the delivery of infrastructure projects and services. For instance, an airport operator and an airline-catering company are typically bundled together. Thus, under MSCI's Global Industrial Classification Standard, 'operators of airports and companies providing related services' are classified together.

Likewise, many road-operating companies are categorised as construction firms, while some project-financing vehicles are often found under 'financials.'

A better way to view the activities of infrastructure companies is as broad families of technical and financial skill sets that are relevant not only to creating and operating infrastructure companies but also to investing in them.

Infrastructure investments require highly specialised knowledge of various industrial processes, such as power generation or the construction and maintenance of major structures, and also awareness of project management and financial structuring.

Transportation projects have common technical and industrial features, as do renewable-energy or social infrastructure projects. These correspond to broad groups of professionals who have the relevant know-how to understand and execute individual transactions.

For instance, stand-alone power generation facilities may use different fuel types and water-treatment companies may serve residential (potable water) or industrial clients (ultra-pure water). Wind power generation may be on-shore or off-shore. Such industrial activities can be sufficiently differentiated to warrant individual classifications. For example, different types of power-generation fuel (coal vs gas vs nuclear) have an impact on the level of regulatory risk taken by investors.

Infrastructure Asset Inclusion Criteria

The inclusion of different asset types in TICCS® is determined by a number of fundamental economic criteria defined here.

Rolling stock and other edge cases

The matter of whether rolling stock should be included in TICCS® is determined by our treatment of finance leases (vs. operating leases) as explained in the 2019 Consultation Results.

The TICCS® Industrial Classification TICCS® 2022 √

TICCS® uses a multi-criteria classification system focusing specifically on infrastructure-related industrial activities, as well as varying degrees of complexity, size, and scale. Using the insights above, TICCS® includes the following industrial classes and subclasses:

  • 8 industrial-group classifications (or superclasses)
  • 35 industrial classes
  • 101 industrial subclasses or asset-level categories

The table below describes the TICCS® industrial classification and the next table provides the corresponding definitions.

Industrial Activity Classifications

IC10Power Generation x-RenewablesIC1010Independent Power ProducersIC101010Nuclear Power Generation
    IC101020Gas-Fired Power Generation
    IC101030Coal-Fired Power Generation
    IC101040Combined Heat and Power Generation
    IC101050Other Fossil-Fuel-Fired Power Generation
  IC1020Independent Water and Power ProducersIC102010Power and Water Production
IC20Environmental ServicesIC2010Waste TreatmentIC201010Non-Hazardous Waste Treatment
    IC201020Hazardous Waste Treatment
    IC201030Waste-to-Power Generation
    IC201040Waste incineration
    IC201050Gaseous Waste Treatment
  IC2020Water Supply and TreatmentIC202010Potable Water Treatment
    IC202020Industrial Water Treatment
    IC202030Sea Water Desalination
    IC202040Water Supply Dams
  IC2030Wastewater TreatmentIC203010Residential Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
    IC203020Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Reuse
  IC2040Environmental ManagementIC204010Flood Control
    IC204020Coastal and Riverine Locks
    IC204030Energy Efficiency
    IC204040Carbon Capture
IC30Social InfrastructureIC3010Defence ServicesIC301010Strategic Transport and Refuelling
    IC301020Training Facilities
    IC301030Barracks and Accommodation
  IC3020Education ServicesIC302010Schools (Classes and Sports Facilities)
    IC302020Universities (Classes, Labs, Administration Buildings)
    IC302030Student Accommodation
  IC3030Government ServicesIC303010Police Stations and Facilities
    IC303020Courts of Justice
    IC303040Street Lighting
    IC303050Social Accommodation
    IC303060Government Buildings and Office Accommodation
  IC3040Health and Social Care ServicesIC304010Hospitals
    IC304030Residential and Assisted Living
  IC3050Recreational FacilitiesIC305010Stadiums and Sports Centres
    IC305020Public Parks and Gardens
    IC305030Convention and Exhibition Centres
    IC305040Arts, Libraries, and Museums
IC40Energy and Water ResourcesIC4010Natural Resources Transportation CompaniesIC401010Gas Pipeline
    IC401020Oil Pipeline
    IC401030Water Pipeline
    IC401040Wastewater Pipeline
    IC401050LNG Ships
  IC4020Energy Resource Processing CompaniesIC402010Liquefied Natural Gas - Liquefaction
    IC402020Liquefied Natural Gas - Regasification
    IC402030Crude Oil Refinery
    IC402040Bioethanol Fuel
  IC4030Energy Resource Storage CompaniesIC403010Gas Storage
    IC403020Liquid Storage
    IC403030Other Storage
    IC403040Floating Storage Units - FSU
IC50Data InfrastructureIC5010Data TransmissionIC501010Cell towers
    IC501020Long-Distance Cables
    IC501030Communication Satellites
    IC501040Radio and media towers
  IC5020Data StorageIC502010Data Centres
IC60TransportIC6010Airport CompaniesIC601010Airport
  IC6020Car Park CompaniesIC602010Car Park
  IC6030Port CompaniesIC603010Tool Port
    IC603020Bulk Goods Port
    IC603030Container Port
    IC603040Other Port
  IC6040Rail CompaniesIC604010Heavy Rail Lines
    IC604020High Speed Rail Lines
    IC604030Freight Rail Rolling Stock
    IC604040Passenger Rail Rolling Stock
  IC6050Road CompaniesIC605010Motorways
    IC605020Motorway Network
    IC605030Dual-Carriage way roads
    IC605040Stand-Alone Tunnels
    IC605050Stand-Alone Bridges
  IC6060Urban Commuter CompaniesIC606010Urban Light-Rail
    IC606020Underground Mass Transit
    IC606030Overground Mass Transit
    IC606040Bus Transportation
IC70Renewable PowerIC7010Wind Power GenerationIC701010On-Shore Wind Power Generation
    IC701020Off-Shore Wind Power Generation
  IC7020Solar Power GenerationIC702010Photovoltaic Power Generation
    IC702020Thermal Solar Power
  IC7030Hydroelectric Power GenerationIC703010Hydroelectric Dam Power Generation
    IC703020Hydroelectric Run-of-River Power
    IC703030Pumped Hydroelectric storage
  IC7040Other Renewable Power GenerationIC704010Biomass Power Generation
    IC704020Geothermal Power Generation
    IC704030Wave Power Generation
  IC7050Other Renewable TechnologiesIC705010Battery storage
    IC705020Off-Shore Transmission (OFTO)
    IC705030Thermal storage
  IC7060Hydrogen power generationIC706010Hydrogen-fired power generation
    IC706020Hydrogen fuel cells
    IC706030Hydrogen storage
IC80Network UtilitiesIC8010Electricity Distribution CompaniesIC801010Electricity Distribution Network
  IC8020Electricity Transmission CompaniesIC802010Electricity Transmission Network
  IC8030District Cooling/Heating CompaniesIC803010District Cooling/Heating Network
  IC8040Water and Sewerage CompaniesIC804010Water and Sewerage Network
  IC8050Gas Distribution CompaniesIC805010Gas Distribution Network
  IC8060Data Distribution CompaniesIC806010Data Distribution Network
  IC8070Smart metering CompaniesIC807010Smart metering network

SuperClass and Class-Level Definitions

IC10Stand-alone power generation using a range of technologies except wind, solar, and other renewable sources.IC1010Independent power producers (IPP) provide electricity to power distribution and transmission companies or directly to industrial or commercial clients.
  IC1020Independent water and power producers (IWPP) are power producers with a colocated water-desalination or filtration facility. Industrial, potable, or ultra-pure water is typically a by-product of the power generation process.
IC20Companies involved in the treatment of water, wastewater, and solid waste for sanitation and reuse purposes.IC2010Waste treatment services include the collection and disposal of solid refuse from residential, commercial, or industrial sources.
  IC2020Stand-alone water treatment companies produce water for various uses, including residential, commercial, and industrial end users.
  IC2030Stand-alone wastewater treatment companies treat wastewater from residential, commercial, and industrial sources to a certain discharge or reuse standard.
  IC2040Environmental management companies invest in projects that conserve natural resources, protect habitats, and control hazards.
IC30Companies involved in the delivery of support and accommodation services for public or other services.IC3010Defence infrastructure companies provide noncombatant support services to public-sector military organisations, including strategic transport, training facilities, and telecommunications.
  IC3020Infrastructure companies providing education services through the development and maintenance of school and university buildings and related facilities for the use of public or private institutions.
  IC3030Infrastructure companies providing support and accommodation services to government departments and other public-sector organisations and agencies.
  IC3040Healthcare infrastructure companies provide support service and facilities to public- or private-sector medical treatment units.
  IC3050Convention, entertainment, and recreational facilities infrastructure companies deliver and maintain various large-scale leisure facilities typically requiring a bespoke structural-engineering component.
IC40Companies involved in the treatment and delivery of natural resources.IC4010Pipeline companies develop and operate high-pressure transmission pipelines.
  IC4020Energy natural resource processing companies transform crude oil, natural gas, and other commodities into various derivative or transformed products.
  IC4040Energy natural resource storage companies provide storage services to private and public clients by exploiting large natural caverns or buildings and maintaining over- or underground tanks.
IC50Companies involved in the provision of telecommunication and data infrastructure.IC5010Data transmission companies involved in the construction, operation, and maintenance of data transmission assets including telecommunications towers, land or sea based long-distance communication cables, and communication satellites.
  IC5020Data storage companies involved in the development, operation, and maintenance of physical data storage infrastructure. This does not include companies that offer data storage in addition to other products.
IC60Companies involved in the provision of transportation infrastructure services.IC6010Airport companies build, maintain, and operate airport terminals, runways, and associated support and logistical services. Large airports also lease property for commercial and retail purposes.
  IC6020Car park service companies provide individual and commercial end users with vehicle-parking facilities. They are relatively small-scale structures built over- and underground mostly within large urban areas.
  IC6030Port infrastructure companies build, maintain, and operate port jetties, passenger terminals, and freight transit and storage facilities.
  IC6040Rail companies provide long-distance, intercity passenger and freight services.
  IC6050Road companies build, maintain, and operate roads and motorways including bridges and tunnels.
  IC6060Urban commuter companies build, maintain, and operate urban rail routes from light (tramway) to mass-transit rail tracks, including over- and underground rail lines.
IC70Stand-alone power generation and transmission companies using wind, solar, hydro and other renewable energy sources. Also energy storage companies.IC7010Wind power companies produce electricity using wind power to operate various types of electromagnetic turbines.
  IC7020Solar power companies produce electricity by capturing solar radiation using a range of solar-cell technologies.
  IC7030Hydroelectric power generating companies use water to produce electricity. This can either be from a dam or from a river.
  IC7040Other renewable power generation companies using various physical phenomena or alternative renewable fuels (other than the wind, sun, or hydro) to generate electricity.
  IC7050Other renewables technology companies use a variety of different methods to provide, store and transmit renewable energy.
  IC7060Hydrogen fired power generating companies that use hydrogen as a fuel. In which the fuel was produced through the electrolysis process. Further involves infrastructure in containing hydrogen through a common method of pressurized storage.
IC80Companies operating an infrastructure network with natural monopoly characteristics (barriers to entry, increasing returns to scale).IC8010Electricity distribution companies distribute medium-voltage electricity to final consumers.
  IC8020Electricity transmission companies transmit relatively high-voltage electricity from the point of generation source to a distribution network.
  IC8030Heating or cooling companies provide service in urban areas using combined heat and power to recycle or reuse waste heat.
  IC8040Water and sewerage companies provide potable water treatment and distribution services as well as the collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater and sewerage.
  IC8050Gas distribution companies operate low-pressure pipeline networks delivering natural gas to end residential, commercial, and industrial consumers.
  IC8060Data distribution companies involve in provision of essential data network especially to sectors of economy (e.g. financial systems, industrial supply chain, public utilities, etc) through utilisation of fiber networks, cell towers, data centers and other data infrastructure.
  IC8070A metering system that monitors and records the utility consumption in a building or area. It usually consists of networked meters built together with sensors and controllers.

SubClass-Level Definitions

IC101010Nuclear power plants heat water in producing steam using nuclear reactors combined with the Rankine cycle. It is a nuclear fission process whereby the steam is used to spin large turbines that generate electricity.
IC101020Gas-fired power plants that utilise Open-cycle gas turbine (OCGT) and Combined Cycle gas turbine (CCGT) technologies. OCGT plants burn natural gas to create a pressurised gas as the working fluid used to turn a turbine to extract energy in the form of electricity.While CCGT plants employ both gas turbine and steam turbines in combination to maximise electricity output where it uses the resulting waste heat from the gas turbine to produce steam to run the steam turbine.
IC101030Coal-fired plants where coal is pulverized and injected into a boiler and burned to produce steam that flows into a turbine that spins a generator to generate electricity.
IC101040Cogeneration power plant that concurrently generates electricity and thermal energy used for a district or industrial heating from a single fuel source.
IC101050Power plant where crude oil and gaseous fuels other than natural gas are used to generate electricity.
IC102010Power producers with a co-located water-desalination or filtration facility. Industrial, potable, or ultra-pure water is typically a by-product of the power generation process.
IC201010Waste treatment facilities that treat common residential, commercial and industrial waste that is considered non-hazardous in solid or non-solid states. The facilities include landfills, transfer stations, compost facilities, recyclers, and processors.
IC201020Waste treatment facilities that are meant for hazardous waste originating from residential, commercial or industrial sources whereby the treatment involves chemical, biological and physical methods. The facilities also have a safety containment system for temporary storage before landfill disposal.
IC201030Power plants that burn solid waste at a high temperature to produce superheated steam that drives generators to produce electricity.
IC201040A plant that incinerates waste through a moving grate, rotary kiln, thermal oxidizers for gases, fumes, and liquid waste. The types of waste include residential, hazardous, medical, and many others. No electricity as by-product.
IC201050Waste treatment facilities that treat gaseous waste via thermal and dry or wet gas treatment.
IC202010A water treatment facility that removes impurities in the raw water collected from a lake, reservoir or river to produce water that is consumable for humans. Water flows into the tank, where coagulation, flocculation, and clarification, followed by sedimentation, occur.
IC202020Industrial wastewater treatment is used to treat contaminated waters by industrial activities before it can be reused or release into the environment.
IC202030A facility that removes salt and other elements from water in order to generate clean water. Typically, it separates water molecules from seawater using reverse osmosis technology.
IC202040A water dam is a structure built across a river or a stream used to supply water for agriculture, industrial uses and household uses.
IC203010Residential wastewater treatment facility employed to reduce contamination level for reuse. Those include Constructed wetlands, biogas settlers, anaerobic baffled reactors, septic tanks, leach fields, evapo-transpiration beds, and surface or subsurface groundwater recharge.
IC203020Companies that employ Industries wastewater purification and recycle for reuse through methods such as sedimentation, aerobic biological treatment, oxidation ponds, biological nutrient removal and disinfection.
IC204010Drainage infrastructure system to hold rainwater in order to prevent urban flooding. This includes temporary rainwater storage tanks and drains and canals. The flood control infrastructure also includes temporary flood barriers such as sheet-piling or raised embankments in flood-prone areas.
IC204020Lock systems that protect marine habitats, control connectivity between rivers and their tributaries and barriers that keep seawater out at the coastal for flood protection
IC204030Energy efficient infrastructure that helps reduce energy demand, while improving energy efficiency and prioritizing emission reductions
IC204040Carbon capture facility refer to point-source carbon capture from the energy, industrial and manufacturing processes. The captured carbon is transported via pipeline to underground carbon dioxide storage in geological formations or reusing it for other purposes.
IC301010Provision of defence services by a facility in strategic transport and refuelling aircraft.
IC301020Buildings, facilities and grounds that are used by defence forces for military training.
IC301030Army barracks and provision of defence living accommodation.
IC302010Buildings with facilities necessary for instructional for primary and secondary students and have the related supporting purposes including classrooms, libraries, cafeterias and physical sport spaces.
IC302020Buildings with facilities necessary for instructional for tertiary students and have the related supporting purposes including classrooms, libraries, cafeterias and physical sport spaces.
IC302030Dormitories for students to live in, with residential quarters for large number of students.
IC303010Buildings with office spaces available to officers, detectives and administrative employees and has other related facilities, including cells for detainers.
IC303020Buildings and facilities for provision of judicial system.
IC303030Secure confinement of people who have been convicted or charged with crimes and in removing them from free society.
IC303040Streetlights that provide source of light along public roads, back lanes and service roads.
IC303050Public housing whereby it is meant for lower-income households to rent and acquire. It is usually set at a fairly low cost by organisations such as the local council.
IC303060Buildings used for governmental purposes and manage government agencies’ office accommodation needs.
IC304010A building that is used to house one or more wards with beds for inpatients and health facilities with medical equipment and device for nursing care, treatment to a patient, and other healthcare services.
IC304020A facility or hospital department where outpatients get medical treatment or consultation, from general medical care to specialist services.
IC304030Nursing homes for people who need daily care and primary provision of health and personal care services.
IC304040A building with facilities including a cremation furnace and chamber.
IC305010It is a venue with a field or stage surrounded by tiers of seats that house a large scale of spectators for sports events, concerts or other events.
IC305020An area designed for active or passive public recreational use.
IC305030A large building with exhibition facilities and halls designed exclusively for convention and exhibition.
IC305040Buildings with collections of literature, history of arts and architecture and provision of services for visitors and students.
IC401010An infrastructure composed of pipes that transport extracted natural gas from the point where natural gas was extracted to the point where it was processed or delivered to the starting point of the distribution system.
IC401020Pipelines that move crude oil production from wells to central stations for further handling. It includes pipelines that deliver oil to larger transmission pipelines transporting their products to refineries and export facilities.
IC401030An infrastructure of high-pressure and long-distance water conveyance pipelines used to move water to serve urban and agricultural users from major sources of water.
IC401040Pipelines that collect wastewater produced at production sites and pumps it at high pressure to remote storage or a disposal site.
IC401050Ship vessel equipped with containment systems carrying LNG in bulk. The system has heavy-insulated, temperature-controlled tanks that ensure the LNG is kept in a liquid state, enabling gas transportation between the liquefaction plant and the regasification site.
IC402010LNG facilities where the natural gas is processed and treated through the gas liquefaction cycle, before storage or transportation.
IC402020Facilities that convert the liquefied natural gas back to a gaseous state by using a heat exchanger with sea water as a heat medium to increase the heat of the natural gas to change it from liquid to a gaseous state.
IC402030An oil refinery is an industrial plant that transforms or refines crude oil into various usable petroleum products. The process involves distillation, cracking and reforming.
IC402040A type of fuel that is derived from plant material. In most cases, this means that the fuel is made from corn or other types of grain. The plant material is fermented using a fermentation tank and then distilled to create the final product.
IC403010Natural gas is typically held underground in three types of reservoirs: depleted oil and gas fields, depleted aquifers, and in salt beds and salt caverns.
IC403020Liquid terminals and above-ground storage tank facilities are interconnected with and used to store natural resources in liquid form.
IC403030Storage facilities for natural resources other than liquid and gas.
IC403040Floating terminal with storage facilities for LNG.
IC501010A short structure that houses equipment for transmitting and receiving radio signals between a cell phone and a network. The equipment at a cell tower site includes a tower, equipment shelter, generator, and battery backup.
IC501020Long distance cables on land and subsea cables where fibre optic cables connect countries across the world via cables typically buried underground or laid on the seabed.
IC501030Satellite companies own and operate individual or constellations of commercial or military satellites to serve various private- or public-sector clients
IC501040A tall structure usually have large antennas on top to enable the transmission of radio waves over long distances for television and radio stations.
IC502010A dedicated physical facility that used by enterprises to store and share applications and data.
IC601010Airport companies build, maintain, and operate airport terminals, runways, and associated support and logistical services. Large airports also lease property for commercial and retail purposes.
IC602010Building or space designated for parking. It can be in the form of attendant facility, metered facility, or operated by means of automatic parking gates.
IC603010A port model where port infrastructure companies leases both the port infrastructure and superstructure assets from the authority and provides services to 3rd parties. The assets are owned, developed and maintained by the port authority.
IC603020Industrial port that has all the facilities required for the storage and transhipment of bulk cargo.
IC603030It is a facility where cargo containers are transhipped between different types of transport vehicles - for example, container vessel to container trucks or trains.
IC603040Ports other than tool port, bulk goods port and container port.
IC604010Long-distance heavy rail tracks out to the suburbs or between the cities.
IC604020Long-distance tracks with dedicated electrification, grade separated from roads and other railroads that allow rail transportation to at higher speed than traditional rail traffic.
IC604030Railway vehicles in both powered and unpowered vehicles usually in the form of rail freight locomotives and heavy-haul wagons.
IC604040Coaches that designed to carry passengers on a railway.
IC605010The motorway connects two or more important cities, and usually, the traffic is uninterrupted without traffic signals. It allows vehicles to travel at high speed, and it is common in two lanes per side of the road and has tollgates as motorways charge tolls.
IC605020A network of roads with inter-city features that have a number of lanes and connect different towns and cities with intersecting roads via traffic lights is a system of highways in any country.
IC605030Divided highway which multiple lanes with traffic going in opposite direction.
IC605040Underground passageway purposed to connect passage under a mountain or river and divert traffic from congested urban areas.
IC605050A structure spanning and providing passage over a gap or barrier, such as river or roadway. Types of bridges include arch bridge, beam bridge, girder bridge, cable stayed bridge and truss bridge.
IC606010A system of tramway tracks and powered by overhead electrical wires and used for medium-capacity local transportation in metropolitan areas.
IC606020Underground railway system within suburban areas.
IC606030Overground railway system within suburban areas.
IC606040A bus rapid transit system that runs within the metropolitan area. The infrastructure assets include stations, terminals and bus fleet.
IC701010Onshore wind energy is generated by wind turbines that are located on land and use the wind occurring in terrestrial locations.
IC701020Offshore wind energy that relies on the power of the wind at sea, where it has greater speed and is more consistent due to the lack of barriers. Megastructures, seated atop the seabed and equipped with turbines, are utilized to harness this powerful resource.
IC702010Uses Photovoltaic (PV) panels that convert sunlight into electricity energy. A photovoltaic (PV) system is composed of one or more solar panels combined with an inverter, a mounting apparatus (Racking) and other electrical and mechanical hardware that use energy from the Sun to generate electricity.
IC702020Solar thermal energy generation that collect and concentrate sunlight to produce the high temperature heat needed to generate electricity.
IC703010Power station that has turbines relying on gravity flow of water from the dam to generate electricity.
IC703020Power station that harness the energy from a flowing river to generate electricity.
IC703030Hydroelectric energy storage facilities that store energy via interconnected reservoirs with one at a lower elevation.
IC704010Power facilities that convert biomass waste, logging residue or agriculture to energy through processes of direct combustion to create heat in generating electricity.
IC704020Power plants that uses geothermal energy to generate electricity via flash system, binary cycle system or dry steam system.
IC704030Facilities that generate electricity from harnessing the wave energy from oceans.
IC705010Storage devices enable energy from renewables, like solar and wind, to be stored and released when the users require it.
IC705020Electrical transmission assets that connect offshore wind farms to the onshore electricity network.
IC705030Energy storage system that store thermal energy to be used later. It operates by means of heating or cooling a media such as water tank.
IC706010Power plants that generate electricity from the hydrogen fuel cells.
IC706020Electricity from renewable sources will be fed into an electrolyser with water to make green hydrogen. Where the hydrogen fuel will be compressed, stored, and sold for use as a carbon-free fuel.
IC706030Storage facilities that store hydrogen in either gas or liquid forms through means such as salt caverns and pipe storage.
IC801010Distribution lines are low-voltage power lines that transport energy from substations to residences, businesses, and other end users. The lines are shorter and span less distance.
IC802010Transmission power lines connect power plants to substations at a high voltage. Transmission lines can transport electricity from one end of the country to the other using interstate connections.
IC803010A heating network generates and distributes heat in the form of hot water and superheated steam using one or more generating units. While district cooling refers to a cooling network in a centralized system that provides chilled water to supply an air conditioning system.
IC804010Water is delivered to end consumers via a network of pipelines, mains, and pumping stations, and is stored in a system of urban water service reservoirs. While sewerage systems are made up of service branch lines from the end users, which feed into reticulation mains. The mains feed into pump stations and trunk sewers, which then lead to treatment plants.
IC805010Gas distribution deals with the medium and low pressure gas mains that convey gas to end customers by a distribution utility.
IC806010Fibre-to-the-Home (FTTH) network whereby a network that connects telecom facilities with the end-users over optical fibre to provide communication signals.
IC807010Smart meter assets installed in the distribution grids to improve energy and gas management and reduce carbon emissions. And water meters in homes and businesses to measure water consumption and encourage water conservation.